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The unknown Pains Of Cocoa Farmers.

Written By Anambra Farmers on Sunday, 16 September 2012 | 02:14


Previous to crude oil was discovered within 1958, agriculture was contributing immensely towards gross domestic product. In actuality, it was the mainstay of the Nigerian economy. But the leadership’s criminal neglect of the sector has ruined it over the years. In 1970, agriculture contributed 48 % to the GDP, but that dropped to 20. 6 % in 1980 and had decreased to 23. 3 per penny by 2005. Crude oil’s contribution towards GDP, on the other side, rose from 29 per penny in 1980 to 59 % in 2005. Hence, the emergence of petroleum provides driven the unwavering devotion directed at cocoa to the oblivion and eroded Nigeria’s position as Africa’s leader in production of the crop.

Africa produces about 70 % of the world’s cocoa. Cote D’Ivoire may be the leading cocoa producing nation with 1. 3 million tonnes yearly, while Ghana is rated next with about 900, 000 tonnes. Nigeria produces only about 250, 000 tonnes annually. While the amount of people who depend on powdered cocoa worldwide for livelihood is projected at 40-50 million, annual powdered cocoa production is put at 3 mil tonnes. The total number regarding cocoa farmers worldwide is calculated at over 6 million, containing mostly Africans, Asians, Central People in america and South Americans. Africa is believed to achieve the greatest number of cocoa farmers but naturally plus, majority of its regular powdered cocoa farmers still wallow in poverty due to poor standard of living, and various economic and enviromentally friendly problems.

The cocoa farming situation in Idanre presents a substantial case study of how the organization has sunk and reflects the variety of problems cocoa farmers are enduring. Idanre, a town believed to become founded over 800 years before is surrounded by clusters regarding isolated rocky hills or piles and located between Akure and Ondo towns in Ondo state. Idanre people are predominantly maqui berry farmers of cash crops. When it concerns cocoa business, Idanre is a spot to reckon with owing to help its rich humus soil and rainforest which support cocoa farming. Massive cocoa farming brought Idanre to help limelight. From Alade Idanre, some sort of suburb, to the ancient Idanre community, Odode Idanre, the smell of cocoa oozes inside the atmosphere. As observed by TheNEWS, just about any street in the mountainous community is laced with shops selling dry cocoa seeds. The seeds are ubiquitous for the streets, spread on sack to help sun-dry.

Cocoa farming in Idanre has changed into a generational business. It is a daily sight to behold cocoa farming families pack dried cocoa plant seeds, sort out the good ones, bag and weigh them. The product or service is then sold to government entities or exporters. A kilo comes for N300-N350, while a bag of cocoa is true of N20, 000. A cocoa pod is true of N50-N100. The purchasing price of any tonne is N300, 000-N350, 000. Cocoa farmers in Nigeria generally lament that inspite of the huge prospects in cocoa enterprise, government has been lukewarm within combating the avalanche of troubles confronting cocoa production and redeeming its lost glory because one-time leading cocoa producing region in Africa.

To Joshua Olawale Oyedele, National Vice President, Cocoa Farmers Association of Nigeria, and Chairman of the Ondo State chapter, the decline in cocoa production and business is usually traced to the oil boom of the 1970s when government shifted attention from cocoa production towards cheap billions of dollars received from oil production. Since next, federal government’s interest in powdered cocoa production has terribly waned. Consequently, cocoa farming is largely left to small-scale farmers, especially inside the rural areas. Chief Rufus Orosundafosi, one of the renowned cocoa farmers in Idanre and Chief executive, Folaforsale Nigeria Limited, Idanre asserted that finance may be the major problem of the enterprise. Orosundafosi, who has been some sort of cocoa farmer for 46 decades, said farmers of the harvest, especially the ones in the rural areas have not been fortunate to enjoy educational funding or loans, and would be smart with government assistance “Cocoa maqui berry farmers, especially the ones in the rural areas are actually seriously marginalised and neglected. Flavor the farmers and the lands being used for cultivation are also aged. Cocoa money is a in season thing. Sometimes, we, the major players, are forced to lend money towards small farmers when things become so hard on their behalf, in order to sustain production, ” he said.

This magazine observed in Idanre that most of the regular cocoa farmers are peasant farmers who learn about farming mainly to sustain their loved ones. Majority of them are in their middle age – in the 40s and 50s. There is the fear that cocoa farming inside the town may soon peter out as a lot of the young men engaged in it are increasingly taking towards commercial motorcycle venture or gunning for menial jobs inside the cities. The young people still staying for the farms were found to be predominantly teenagers who are compelled by their parents control to accomplish this. Joseph Oloruntoba, an indigenous cocoa farmer warned that in case nothing was done to deal with the increasing youth lethargy within cocoa farming, cocoa productivity may experience a decline, or even total erosion.

Another constraint mentioned by a group of cocoa farmers is that they hardly enjoy the so-called government intervention funds/loans. They revealed that even a few of the seeds, especially the high yielding seeds, meant for farmers for the government, are often hijacked by ghost farmers while genuine farmers are ignored. Most of the farmers are also still applying old methods and tools because of illiteracy. While in countries similar to Ghana, most of the farmers are applying high yielding and improved types, the old and regular seeds are usually in vogue among Nigerian farmers. As outlined by Temitope Ajanaku, an Akure-based powdered cocoa entrepreneur, while cocoa farmers within Ghana, as observed by him during his last trip to that country, use, at minimum, 15 bags of fertilisers for every hectare, their Nigerian counterparts work with five bags and, even now and again, none. The edge, he mentioned, accounts for the increase within cocoa production in Ghana.

As outlined by a research conducted by Shrub Crop Units, Ministry of Agriculture, Ondo State, cocoa seeds manufactured in Nigeria are not of lesser quality inspite of the constraining factors. In the span of the research, Stephen Ogunmola, Undertaking Manager, TCU, revealed that the team do an empirical analysis and comparism of examples of cocoa brought from Ghana and those of Nigeria. It was learned that the Ghanaian cocoa is more substantial than Nigerian cocoa, hence this accounts for the rising preference for cocoa manufactured in Nigeria. Timileyin Kolade, another cocoa farmer added that Ghanaians use a good agricultural structure or system that enables them to devote more care about cocoa production.

Oyedele corroborated that cocoa manufactured in Nigeria is superior. “Cocoa manufactured in Nigeria is far better than that of Ghana. Even a number of their farmers prefer that of Nigeria because doing so has a unique smell that that of Ghana doesn’t get, ” he said. He condemned the perpetual hike inside the prices of chemical and expense of labour. He also chatted on other problems: “To practise mechanised farming is a serious challenge because you should acquire tractors, graders and other equipment. If you observe what is happening you'll find that most of our farmers still be based upon using cutlasses, contrary to what is obtainable far away. They embrace mechanised farming and that is the reason they are doing better. Even though most of the cocoa products manufacturing companies, especially the methods in the south-west are doing their utmost, they are financially stretched because of the high cost of operations within Nigeria. ”

Oyedele applauded the courage regarding cocoa products manufacturing companies to stay in business despite the short method of getting cocoa seeds from farmers. You can find reports of some cocoa manufacturing companies threatening to power down operation due to rising operational cost. Some farmers fear of which cocoa seeds may witness deficiency if government doesn’t intervene before long. But Oyedele allayed such fear. ‘‘Those complaining of scarcity are not able to substantiate that. Government is making plans to enhance cocoa production and many of us are waiting for the new selection. The people who paid first for that seedlings were given first but we're being assured that we could possibly get more seeds, ” he mentioned. Farmers are also ruing high rainfall this coming year and have been counting the losses. Another setback identified by the farmers is land unavailability. Lands for cocoa cultivation have grown to be limited due to urbanisation – the call to construct houses, infrastructure and other social and human amenities.

Ogunmola assured how the Ondo State government is responding to the constraints. He revealed how the government has equipped its 50 hectares seed gardens with more seedlings and high yielding selection. The seed gardens are similar to banks for cocoa seedlings or nurseries and are also located in various towns across the state. They are sited within Owena, Ibule-Ipinsa, Alade, Ileoluji and Otu. Shaba, the coordinator for the farms in the state showed this magazine its own high-yielding cocoa breed called WACRI, a product of the particular West Africa Cocoa Research, Ghana, which can be meant to be distributed to help farmers at maturity. Cocoa farmers generally are advocating for that adequate funding and establishment regarding cocoa nurseries across cocoa generating states. They are of the belief such a step will boost cocoa yields and option of improved varieties.

Meanwhile, the government has promised to disburse N5. 6 million towards International Cocoa Coordinating Organisation, ICCO, to boost cocoa production in Nigeria. Samuel Ortom, Minister regarding State For Trade and Investment decision, gave the assurance recently in Abuja within a visit of the ICCO group. “Cocoa is key to the particular economy of the country which is high time we stepped up efforts that will put cocoa in its rightful area, ” he said. Other African countries that are part of the ICCO project include Cote d’Ivoire, Cameroon, Ghana and Togo. But one of the prominent questions inside the mouth of most cocoa maqui berry farmers is: When will the Nigerian government sincerely accord cocoa its rightful focus?
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